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Bozcaada is known with its wines for centuries. We know that, in the ancient times they used to make a festival for Dionysius (patron of wine) in the island. Evliya Çelebi (the world famous traveller of 17th century) had said that the best wine in the world was produced in Bozcaada.
Since Greek people left the island, the wine is not produced that much. The grapes are cultivated to be consumed as fruits. However, still there are 4 wine factories (Talay, Ataol, Corvus and Yunatcilar). It is possible to visit the factories, see how the wine is made, taste wine and make shopping. If you ask my opinion, i did not find the wine of the island very special. Still, it is a good gift to bring friends from the island. You can taste wine in restaurants and bars as well and you can buy wine from the buffet in the harbour.
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Grape and wine had been a subject in almost every source, drawn or written since the earliest times of the human history. Grape being the symbol of the first fertility gods, the other one is wheat, saved its holy character by transforming into wine, in the religion of our times. It is an object in all forms of art, in every century, with its magical structure. Wine, the natural product of grape juice, is magical and full of secrets even today, contrary to the level of achievements reached in production technologies.
Many sources indicate Anatolia, as a part of the homeland for hundreds of varieties of grape. Behind the words of WINE, WEIN, VIN, WIN, OINOS, VINUM, WOINOS, used today and in the past, lies the word of "VIYANA" , belonging to the Hitite Civilization with an history dating back 4500 years. Grape and wine, having very important role for 10 000 years, in the identified past of the area, had been first taken to Egypt through Mesopotamia, then to the Mediterranean islands and Greece by the Phoenician sailors, from there to Europe by the Romans. It was transported to the east by Persia and India. The Spanish took it to America in the 16th century. Grape began to be planted in South Africa in 17th century, in Australia at the end of 18th century and New Zealand in 19th century. Vine plantation and agriculture of grape in the world is increasing today, in the areas, where the temperatures are between -1 and 19 degrees Centigrade, during the productive season of the grape.
The most widely spread and densely consumption of grape, throughout the world is by wine. More than 50% of the grape production is converted into wine. This percentage in Turkey is below 5%.
The transformation of the grape juice, consisting of 75% of water and 22% of sugar in general, into wine, consisting of 85% of water and 12% of alcohol is a result of its own nature. The microscopic yeasts on the grape berry splits the molecules of carbon dioxide. This, so called fermentation process is the required reaction for wine making released with the aid of anaerobic bacteria.
This information is expressed in the chemical language (reaction equation) as:
C6H12O6 ( ----------------) 2C2H50H + 2CO2 + 56K.Calories
(Grape sugars) (Yeasts) (Alcohol) (Carbon dioxide) (Energy)
If the process is carried out in open air, then oxidation of the alcohol to asetic acid (vinegar) occurs which spoils the wine.
The above expression discovered by Gay-Lussac in 1818, is far away from telling us the beauty, magic and secrets behind the wine, with a past of thousands of years. The total essence of the wine, is in the 3% balance, of water and sugar in grape juice and of water and alcohol in wine, composed of acids as tartaric, malic, and lactic, minerals as potassium magnesium, calcium, sodium, and iron, nitrogenous compounds as proteins and amino acids, oxygen compounds such as polyhenolics and many other ingredients. The all magic, color, smell and taste is hidden in this 3%. This magic which enology could any understand by comparative methods, in most of the cases is not difficult to perceive if looked at grapes nature and thousand of years of tradition.
The positive effect of wine to human health is a real natural beverage, is known by humanity since thousands of years. And this peculiarity is confirmed by new researchers even today. It is definite that wine is one of the most healthful beverages and disease making bacteries can not grow in wine.
One of the leading compounds in wine is RESVERATROL, and antioxidant found in the seeds and skins of grapes. Red wine has a high concentration of resveratrol, because, the skins and seeds remain in the grape juices during wine-making process. This prolonged contact during fermentation produces significant levels of resveratrol, in the finished red wine. White wine also contains resveratrol, but the seeds and skins are removed early, reducing the concentration of the compound in the white wine. There are many other flavonoids and polyohenolic compounds in wine that show antioxidant activity. Antioxidants help well being by protecting the tissues and biological macromolecules ( proteins, DNA, etc.) against free radical attack, which may in turn offer certain health benefits in the prevention heart diseases. Antioxidants in wine are also beneficial in fighting against cancer, Alzheimer, dementia.
Many people say that , they have
difficulty in understanding the magic behind the wine self product of
grape. In fact, it is very easy to differentiate and specify a good
wine. The whole specialty and secrets are in the crystal color , in the
smell, reminiscing bunch of flowers and basket of fruits, in the
indescribable taste formed in the mouth, while and after drinking and
beyond all of this, in the kef felt.
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